Characterization of the binary supermassive black hole (SMBH) population over cosmic history is a critical pathway to understanding galaxy/SMBH assembly and forecasting low-frequency gravitational wave detection in the coming decades. Following the merger of two galaxies, the two SMBHs within each of the galaxies will eventually evolve into a bound binary, separated by a few parsec, via dynamical friction with stars and other dynamical processes. Studying SMBH pairs at different evolutionary stages, e.g., from tens of kpc separations at the beginning of the merger to ~10 parsec scales of bound binaries, provides the foundation to understanding AGN fueling in mergers and the dynamical evolution of SMBH pairs. In this talk, I will review our current understanding of how SMBH pairs evolve in galaxy mergers, and summarize observational efforts of identifying the population of galactic-scale SMBH pairs at cosmic noon (z~2). In particular, I will highlight the importance of multi-wavelength observations on constraining the statistics of these objects as well as detailed studies of their physical properties.
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Meeting ID: 898 910 0497