Caption: The relation between Wolf 359’s flare activity (numbers in the blue histogram and energies in the black rhombi) and stellar rotational phase (red dots) which displays the possible dark spots concentrated region on the photosphere.
PhD student Chia-Lung Lin: Wolf 359 is an M5 young flaring red dwarf and the fifth closest star to the Sun. It is also an exoplanet-hosting candidate with at least two possible exoplanets. The star was a target of the K2 mission observed by the EDEN project, which is a global network of 1–2 m class telescopes for detection and characterization of rocky exoplanets in the habitable zones of nearby late-M dwarfs. In the combination of the K2 data and our EDEN observations (~ 80 days), a total of 872 flares have been detected, suggesting that Wolf 359 is able to produce more than 10 flares per day. The most violent flare releases energy up to about 10 times powerful than the biggest solar flare in the record and wolf 359 can produce 10 times per year. On the other hand, the flare tends to explode near the dark spots based on the solar observations. However, no correlation of flare activity, i.e. numbers and energies, with the stellar rotational phase that reflects possible spots concentrated region, was found on Wolf 359 (see Figure above).
This study has been published in Astronomical Journal:
Lin, C.-L., Chen, W.-P., Ip, W.-H., et al. 2021, AJ, 162, 11 (Including Prof. Chen and Prof. Ip in the institute).